Abstract:The wavenumbers of the carbonyl stretching vibrations of 2-pyrrolidinone (P), 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (MP), 1-isopropyl-2-pyrrolidinone (IPP), 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-pyrrolidinone (HEP), 2-oxobenzothiazole (OBT), and 3-octyl-2-oxobenzothiazole (OOBT) were measured in n-hexane/CDCl3, acetonitrile/D2O, methanol/D2O, and 2-butoxyethanol/D2O mixtures and compared with similar data for 1-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CHP) and dimethylacetamide (DMA). The dependencies of the wavenumbers on the mole fraction of the less polar cosolvent in binary mixtures allow a distinction and assignment of all species resulting from weak solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions. The slopes of the dependencies of the wavenumbers on the mole fraction for similar intermolecular species in n-hexane/CDCl3 mixtures correlate well with the relative hydrogen bond basicities (i.e. hydrogen bonding abilities with phenol) and reveal that the solvent sensitivities significantly depend on the steric requirements in the vicinity of the C=O group. On the other hand, the slopes of similar dependencies in acetonitrile/D2O mixtures are proportional to the electron donating effects of alkyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrolidinone ring. In the case of mixtures formed by two strongly hydrogen bonding cosolvents (alcohols/D2O), a competitive equilibrium occurs between the hydrogen bonding tendency of both cosolvents and 1-substituted 2-pyrrolidinones. In solutions of 1-substituted 2-pyrrolidinones in water-rich 2-butoxyethanol/D2O mixtures, microheterogeneous domains occur before classic mixtures of two polar liquids are formed.